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Featured Plant Species

Acorus-americanus---Sweet-Flag

Acorus americanus - Sweet Flag

Emergent Shallow
Emergent Marsh Forb
A plant whose leaves can be mistaken for those of Iris, this interesting wetland wildflower takes its common name from the sweet aroma released when its leaves are crushed. Found along stream banks and in a variety of wetlands, this 2’-4’ tall plant produces a spadix of tiny, greenish-yellow flowers in spring to early summer.

Allium-cernuum_Nodding-Pink-Onion

Allium cernuum - Nodding Onion

Upland Moist
Mesic Prairie Forb
White-to-pink flowers highlight this short member of the onion family. Growing to 2’ tall, this is a good choice for low-profile areas. A bulb-forming plant that grows in moist, rich soils and full sun, it looks best planted in mass.

Ammophila_breviligulata

Ammophila breviligulata - Dune Grass/ American Beach Grass

Foredune
Lake/Ocean Shoreline Grass
This native species plays an important role in dune stabilization on lake and ocean shorelines. Dune Grass is a vigorous grower reaching 2’-3’ tall and reproducing vegetatively from runners. Once established roots can extend to 18”. A spike-like panicled inflorescence to 10" long is produced midsummer. Dune Grass is a hardy native found from the Carolinas to Maine and across the Great Lakes region.

Amorpha-fruticosa

Amorpha fruticosa - Indigo Brush

Upland Moist
Flood Plain Shrub
Salt tolerant shrub growing to 18', prefers medium-wet soils. Long racemes of purple flowers bloom from May to August.

Asclepias_incarnata_2

Asclepias incarnata - Swamp Milkweed

Saturated to Emergent Shallow
Wetland Forb
This is a magnificent milkweed species that will produces clusters of pink blossoms that are pleasantly fragrant. At the end of the summer, the seed pods split and release numerous seeds with long silky white hairs that catch the wind and allow the seeds to spread. A favorite of native bees and wasps, it is a valuable food source for the Monarch butterfly caterpillar. Growing to heights of 3' to 5', this plant blooms from early to late summer. One of the few milkweeds that prefers wet soils, it does best in full to partial sunlight.

Asclepias-syriaca_Common-Milkweed

Asclepias syriaca - Common Milkweed

Upland Dry
Dry-to-Mesic Prairie Forb
Butterflies (including the monarch butterfly), moths, and scores of other insects rely on common milkweed for food. The huge, pink blossoms are gorgeous and fragrant, and the seed pods make for winter interest. This plant grows 2’-4’ tall in full sun and well-drained soils. It spreads readily by rhizomes and large colonies can form from a single plant.

Asclepias-tuberosa---Butterfly-Weed

Asclepias tuberosa - Butterfly Weed

Upland Dry
Prairie Forb
An essential plant to attract butterflies and colorful native bees and wasps, this stunning orange blooming wildflower puts on a show from June to late August. A favored food source of the Monarch butterfly caterpillar, this species lacks the milky sap common to other milkweed species. It does have the signature milkweed seed pods and seed that have large silky tufts of hair that help the wind disperse the seed. Butterfly Weed will reach about 2' in height and prefers dry soils in full to partial sunlight.

Baptisia-alba---White-WIld-Indigo

Baptisia alba - White Wild Indigo

Upland Moist
Mesic Prairie Forb
A member of the pea family, this species can tolerate medium soil moisture and produces bright white 1” long flowers on a loose stalk. Its 3-leaflet leaves provide an attractive bluish-green foliage. It grows from 2’-4’ in height and flowers during early summer.

Baptisia-australis---Blue-Wild-Indigo

Baptisia australis - Blue Wild Indigo

Upland Moist
Dry-to-Mesic Prairie Forb
A member of the pea family, this deep-rooted legume with bushy habit and large showy spikes of deep indigo blue flowers makes its blooming debut during late spring. Smooth, rounded, blue-green leaflets and black seed pods make ideal dried flower arrangements. This plant prefers average soil, is flood and drought tolerant, and grows 3’-5’ tall.

Baptisia-bracteata_Cream-Wild-Indigo

Baptisia bracteata - Cream Wild Indigo

Upland Dry
Dry Prairie / Savanna Forb
This member of the pea family grows up to 3’ tall. Compact in shape with beautiful groups of cream blossoms, this plant grows well in most well-drained soils. Install plugs or potted plants, because it can take many years to develop from seed.

Bouteloua-curtipendula---Side-Oats-Grama

Bouteloua curtipendula - Side-Oats Grama

Upland Dry
Dry Prairie Grass
A delicate-looking grass of dry prairies, this 2’-4’ tall species prefers full sun and blooms from mid-summer to mid-fall. It produces small green flowers with red stamens, and the flowers mature to a purplish color. Its oat-like seeds attract birds.

Bromus-pubescens

Bromus pubescens - Woodland Brome

Upland Moist
Medium Woodland Grass
Cool season common woodland grass species needs medium soil and full to partial shade. Grows 2' to 4' tall. Long spikelets create a drooping inflorescence.



Bluejoint Grass
Calamagrostis canadensis
 - Bluejoint Grass
Saturated to Upland Moist
Wetland Grass
A slender-leaved grass of wet meadows and lake banks, this species produces a slighty nodding, branched inflorescence. Blooming around June, flowers are reddish in color turning tan with age. It will grow between 2' and 4' feet tall, is tussock-forming, and can spead via rhizomes. Bluejoint Grass prefers wet soils and does well in all type of sunlight.

Carex-comosa---Bristly-Sedge

Carex comosa - Bristly Sedge

Saturated to Emergent Deep
Wetland sedge
A member of the sedge family, this 2' to 4' tall plant blooms from late spring to early summer. Leaves are light to medium green in color and deeply furrowed. The inflorescence appears during the late spring and consists of 2 to 6 female spikelets, 1 male spikelet, and a leafy bract. The females spikelets have a bristly appearance due the long teeth of the perigynia, hence this species common name. Bristly Sedge performs best in wet soils in full to partial sunlight.

Carex-gran

Carex granularis - Pale Sedge

Saturated
Wet Meadow Sedge
Grows 1' to 2' tall in multiple habitats and all sun conditions, but prefers moist to wet soil. The light green to blueish-green foliage is 1/3" wide. Male and female spikelets form in May to June.

Carex_vulpinoidea_2

Carex vulpinoidea - Brown Fox Sedge

Saturated to Emergent Shallow
Wetland Sedge
A hardy, clump-forming member of the sedge family, this 2' to 3' tall plant blooms in late spring to early summer. Its inflorescence is 2" to 5" long and consists of several short spikelets that tend to overlap near the top of the bloom. This common sedge has narrow, 3' long, light green leaf blades. It prefers wet soils in full to partial sunlight.

Chelone-glabra---Turtlehead

Chelone glabra - Turtlehead

Saturated
Wet Prairie / Marsh / Swamp Forb
This plant receives its common name from the terminal clusters of creamy-white flowers shaped like turtles’ heads. It often blooms in its first year from late summer to mid- autumn, growing 3’-4’ in height. It tolerates moist-to-wet soil but does well in average garden soil.

Cirsium_discolor

Cirsium discolor - Field Thistle

Mesic Upland
Prairie Forb
Pink or lavender flowers bloom in late summer- fall. Not as weedy as non-native thistles, the 3’ to 6’ tall native can be identified by the white undersides of the leaves. The seed, pollen and nectar support butterflies, bees, hummingbirds, and Goldfinches. This is the perfect wildflower to include in naturalized areas and prairie gardens..

Coreopsis-lanceolata---Sand-Coreopsis_1

Coreopsis lanceolata - Sand Coreopsis

Upland Dry
Dry Prairie / Savanna Ford
Growing up to 2’ in height, this attractive plant with its 4”-6” long, lance-shaped leaves is a bright addition to the prairie landscape. Preferring full sun and dry soils, this species produces 1”-2.5” diameter yellow flower heads from late spring to late summer.

Coreopsis-palmata---Prairie-Coreopsis

Coreopsis palmata - Prairie Coreopsis

Upland Dry
Dry Prairie / Savanna Forb
This plant has interesting and attractive foliage. It prefers dry soils and sunny to partially sunny conditions. Its bright yellow flower heads are 1”-1.5” in diameter and appear from early to late summer. It grows up to 2’ in height.

Coreopsis-tripteris---Tall-Coreopsis

Coreopsis tripteris - Tall Coreopsis

Upland Moist
Mesic Prairie Forb
Large 2” flower heads appear on tall, branching stems in late summer. This excellent border plant has leaves with three elongate leaflets and prefers moist soil. The giant of the genus Coreopsis, it grows 6’-8’ tall and flowers from July to August. It is extremely drought tolerant and deeply rooted.

Dalea-purpurea---Purple-Prairie-Clover

Dalea purpurea - Purple Prairie Clover

Upland Dry
Dry-to-Mesic Prairie Forb
This member of the pea family enriches the soil by pulling nitrogen from the air. The 2” rosy purple spike sits atop its 12”-24” tall stem and the leaves provide a food source for sulfur butterfly offspring. It grows best in full sun and prefers average to dry soil conditions. Its taproot can reach 5’ in depth.

Diarrhena-americana

Diarrhena americana - Beak Grass

Upland Moist
Medium Woodland Grass
Growing 1' to 3' tall, teh 1/2" wide bright green leaf blades turn tannish-gold in fall and produce 4" to 12" drooping panicles of green flowers in July. It prefers medium soils and full to partial shade.

Dodecatheon-meadia---Shooting-Star

Dodecatheon meadia - Shooting Star

Upland Moist
Mesic Prairie Forb
The white-to-pink flowers with petals swept backward like the tail of a comet, with light green oval leaves at the base, make for an elegant spring wildflower. Blooming briefly from April to May, this 12”-18” tall plant goes dormant after setting seed and performs best in well-drained soil.

Echinacea-pallida---Purple-ConeflowerNEW

Echinacea pallida - Purple Coneflower

Upland Dry
Dry Prairie Forb
A wonderful cousin of the well-known Echinacea purpurea, this species has beautiful pale purple ray flowers whose heads range from 2”-3.5” in diameter. The flowers tend to droop, creating a visually stunning look. This species blooms late spring to late summer. It is a favorite nectar source for butterflies and provides seeds for birds.

Echinacea_purpurea_broad-leaved_purple_coneflower_2

Echinacea purpurea - Broadleaved Purple Coneflower

Upland Dry
Prairie Forb
The iconic coneflower species, this 3' to 5' tall plant blooms early to late summer, several weeks later than Echinacea pallida. It features showy, 2" to 4" diameter blooms that consist of a cone of reddish-brown disc florets and drooping, purple ray florets. These blooms are favorite nectar sources for butterflies, and in the fall, the seeds attract birds. The foliage is dark green and broadly ovate with few hairs. It prefers full to partial sunlight in areas with medium to dry soils.

Elymus-canadensis---Canada-Wild-Rye

Elymus canadensis - Canada Wild Rye

Upland Moist
Dry-to-Mesic Prairie Grass
Elymus hystrix Bottlebrush Grass Mesic Woodland / Forest Grass This medium-to-full shade grass has a seed head that resembles a bottlebrush. In natural conditions you can find this growing in dry, well-drained areas. The 3’-5’ tall grass works well under large trees, where some light can reach the understory. Also called “nodding wild rye” because the seed heads droop downward, this 2’-5’ tall July-to-August blooming perennial adapts to a wide range of soils. Its leaf blades are flat or folded, 4”-12” long. Preferring average, well-drained soils in full sun, it can be easily grown from seed.

Elymus-hystrix_Bottlebrush-Grass

Elymus hystrix - Bottlebrush Grass

Upland Moist
Mesic Woodland / Forest Grass
This medium-to-full shade grass has a seed head that resembles a bottlebrush. In natural conditions you can find this growing in dry, well-drained areas. The 3’-5’ tall grass works well under large trees, where some light can reach the understory.

Eupatorium-perfoliatum---Common-boneset-_2

Eupatorium perfoliatum - Common Boneset

Saturated
Wet Prairie Forb 
This mid-summer to early autumn blooming plant produces loose, flat-topped heads of white disk flowers. Mostly found in moist meadows, this forb will also perform well in drier situations. Reaching heights of 2’-4’, this late emerger makes up for its slow start with a rapid burst of growth.

Eutrochium-maculatum---Spotted-Joe-Pye-Weed

Eutrochium maculatum - Spotted Joe-Pye Weed

Saturated
Wet Prairie Forb
A superb butterfly-attracting species, this 4’-7’ tall plant produces large, branching clusters of purplish-pink flower heads in mid-summer to mid-fall. Named for its purple-spotted stem, this species prefers wet soils and full sun. It is found in wet meadows and on the edges of ponds, lakes, and streams.

Filipendula-rubra---Queen-of-the-PrairieNEW

Filipendula rubra - Queen of the Prairie

Saturated
Wet Prairie Forb
Its common name says it all! A member of the rose family, this remarkable plant, with its delicate foliage, produces clusters of pink flowers that have a wonderful fragrance. Blooming in mid-summer, this wildflower prefers wet soils and full sun, and grows 3’-6’ tall.

Geum-triflorum---Prairie-Smoke

Geum triflorum - Prairie Smoke

Upland Dry
Dry Prairie Forb
From May to June, the massed flowers of this plant turn fields pink. Seed heads are showy, pink 2” plumes that gradually turn gray. Usually less than a foot tall, with numerous basal leaves and hairy stems, it will flower after its second year if grown from seed; if grown from division it will flower its first year.

Glyceria-striataNEW

Glyceria striata - Fowl Manna Grass

Saturated
Wet Prairie / Mesic-to-Wet Forest Grass
A native perennial with short rootstocks, this grass produces erect leafy shoots in loose tufts. It is found in moist meadows, pastures, ditches, and wet-to-mesic forests. The two-ranked, blue-green leaves of this species are easily recognizable.

Helenium-autumnale---Sneezeweed

Helenium autumnale - Sneezeweed

Saturated
Wet Prairie Forb
This plant prefers full-to-partial sun and blooms mid-summer to mid-fall. It has reflexed, yellow, wedge-shaped ray flowers that are three-lobed. The base of each lance-shaped leaf extends down the stem, making the plant’s stem appear to be winged like the shaft of an arrow. Growing 3’-5’ tall, the plant gets its name from the fact that the dried flower heads and seeds induce sneezing.

Helianthus-mollis_Downy-Sunflower

Helianthus mollis - Downy Sunflower

Upland Dry
Dry-to-Mesic Prairie Forb
One of the many native sunflowers, this plant is a finch favorite. Growing up to 4’ tall, this species grows in a wide range of soils. From sand to well-drained loams, it puts on a great display of yellow blooms. Songbirds are attracted to the seed heads and use them as a food source.

Heliopsis-helianthoides---False-Sunflower

Heliopsis helianthoides - False Sunflower

Upland Moist
Mesic Prairie / Woodland Edge Forb
A robust native species, this plant produces numerous, showy yellow flower heads 1.5”-2.5” in diameter. It has large, triangular-shaped, toothed leaves. Growing in full-to-partial sun, it prefers dry-to-moist soils. Blooming mid-summer to early fall, it grows up to 6’ tall.

Hibiscus-laevis---Smooth-Rose-Mallow

Hibiscus laevis - Smooth Rose Mallow

Emergent Shallow
Emergent Marsh / Pond Edge Forb
A terrific, showy wetland forb, this species is characterized by its long, 3-lobed, spear-shaped lower leaves. Growing 3’-7’ tall, this plant prefers wet soils and full-to-partial sun. Its mostly white flowers are 4”-6” in diameter and have pink centers. It blooms from mid-summer to early fall.

Hibiscus-moscheutos---Swamp-Rose-Mallow-1NEW

Hibiscus moscheutos - Swamp Rose Mallow

Emergent Shallow
Emergent Marsh Forb
Another showy wetland forb, this species produces flowers that can be reddish in color. Its leaves are rounded and egg shaped, although some may appear marginally lobed. It prefers wet soils and full-to-partial sun.

Iris_virginica

Iris virginica - Blue Flag Iris

Saturated to Emergent Shallow
Wetland Forb
A common wetland wildflower, this species has showy, 2" to 4" blue to violet blossoms that can be seen late spring into mid-summer. The foliage consists of clumps of vertical, wide, sword-shaped leaves that are bluish-green to green and 2' to 3' in length. Often spreading rhizomatously to form small colonies, it thrives in soils that are moist and will endure water that is up to a 1' deep, making it a great choice for water gardens. This perennial does best in full to partial sunlight, though light shade is tolerated, and is deer resistant [may still be browsed on if more palatable species are not available].

Juncus_effusus

Juncus effusus - Common Rush

Saturated to Emergent Shallow
Wetland Rush
An interesting rush species, this plant forms clumps of erect, , round, green stems that can grow up to 4' tall. Blooming from early to mid summer, it produces an umbel-like inflorescence a few inches from the top of the stem that tends to hang off to one side. The combined bloom is up to 4" wide, but the individual blooms are only 1/8" wide and can be green to brown in color. Often found in wet meadows or various other wetland habitats, Common Rush grows in full to partial sunlight in damp to saturated soils.

Juncus-torreyi---Torrey_s-Rush

Juncus torreyi - Torrey’s Rush

Saturated
Wet Prairie Rush
One of the most distinctive rushes, with dense bunches of round seed heads borne near the tips of erect stems, this plant performs best in damp soils and adds structure and interest in hard-to-landscape situations. Blooming from June to July, this dark green plant with brown seed heads grows 1’-3’ tall.

Koeleria-pyramidata---June-Grass

Koeleria pyramidata - June Grass

Upland Dry
Dry Prairie / Savanna Grass
This slender grass, with showy, whitish, spike-like panicles and ribbon-like leaves, is nice for landscaping in masses. Blooming from May to June, this plant prefers well-drained soil in full sun to partial shade. Growing to 2’ tall, its blooms make excellent dried flowers.

Leersia-oryzoides

Leersia oryzoides - Rice Cut Grass

Saturated
Wet Prairie / Woodland Grass
This 3’-5’ tall plant is used for streambank stabilization and in vegetated swales. Mature plants tolerate seasonal to permanent flooding and prefer moist-to-saturated soils in full-to-partial sun. The seeds and roots are eaten by waterfowl and songbirds, and also provide cover for many reptiles, amphibians, insects, and fish.

Liatris-aspera---Rough-Blazing-Star

Liatris aspera - Rough Blazing Star

Upland Dry
Dry Prairie / Savanna Forb
Found in dry prairies and sandy savannas, this attractive plant grows 2’-3’ tall when planted in a dry, sunny, well-drained soil. Individual tufts of small pink flowers form a 1’ long spike at the end of a 3’ stem. As its name indicates, this plant is a star among the late-season bloomers.

Lobelia-cardinalis---Cardinal-Flower

Lobelia cardinalis - Cardinal Flower

Upland Moist
Wetland Forb
The 1" long red flowers on tall, spike-like racemes from mid-summer to mid fall attract hummingbirds. A short leaved perennial that reseeds, it will reach 2' to 5' tall when in bloom. Found in wet meadows, ponds and lake edges, it prefers wet, saturated soils and full to partial sunlight.

Lobelia-siphilitica-Great-Blue-Lobelia

Lobelia siphilitica - Great Blue Lobelia

Saturated
Wetland Forb
Blooming mid-summer to mid-fall, this plant grows to 4’ tall, producing a spike-like raceme of striking blue-violet flowers that are favored by bees. Each tubular flower is about 1" long and has two upper lobes and three lower lobes. It prefers wet soils and full to partial sunlight.

Lobelia_spicata

Lobelia spicata - Pale Spiked Lobelia

Upland Moist
Wet-to-Mesic Forb
Short-lived perennial, grows 1' to 3' tall. Produces a 4"- 12" spike of small light blue to white flowers. The inflorescence may require staking if it lacks adequate support from surrounding plants. Leaves are narrowly ovate to 3" long. Best in medium soils and full- partial sunlight.

Lupinus-perennis---Wild-Lupine

Lupinus perennis - Wild Lupine

Upland Dry
Dry Prairie / Savanna Forb
This plant produces an elongated cluster of bluish flowers with interesting silvery-green foliage. It can be found in full-sun prairies to partially shaded savannas. Blooming from mid-spring to early summer, this 1’-2’ tall plant offers bees an early nectar source.

Liatris-pycnostachyaNEW

Liatris pycnostachya - Prairie Blazing Star

Upland Moist
Mesic Prairie Forb
Similar to its sister plant Liatris aspera (Rough Blazing Star), this species produces unbranched stems 5’ tall, forming narrow, spiked, pink clusters of flower heads. This late summer-blooming plant prefers full sun and dry-to-moist soil.

Mimulus-ringens---Monkey-Flower

Mimulus ringens - Monkey Flower

Emergent Shallow
Wet Prairie / Swamp / Floodplain Forb
This is an attractive wetland wildflower with 1” long, violet-purple flowers. This species grows in areas with damp soils and in water up to 3” deep. Blooming from mid-summer to early fall, this species prefers full sun but also grows well in shaded conditions.

Monarda-punctata_Horse-Mint

Monarda punctata - Horse Mint

Upland Dry
Dry Prairie Forb
A member of the mint family, this sand-loving species grows 1’-2’ tall in full sun. The unique leaves, colorful bracts, and spotted flowers of this plant attract a multitude of butterflies and bees to its rich nectar. Deer resistant, this plant is great for sandy, dry areas.

Nuphar-advena---Yellow-Pond-Lily

Nuphar advena - Yellow Pond Lily

Aquatic
Emergent Marsh / Pond / Lake Forb
This floating-leaved, aquatic species can grow into water up to 7’ deep, sending its foliage to the surface. Most of its 4”-12” long leaves are held above the water, but some float on the surface. Blooming in late spring to late summer with yellow 1.5”-3” flowers, it prefers full-to-partial sun and can spread rapidly.

Nymphaea-odorata

Nymphaea odorata - White Water Lily

Aquatic
Pond / Lake Forb
With its 4”-8” wide, bright-white blooms barely floating on the surface, this elegant aquatic plant grows in waters up to 6’ deep. All of its round, notched leaves float on the surface. It prefers full-to-partial sun and blooms from late spring to late summer.

Oligoneuron-rigidum---Stiff-Goldenrod

Oligoneuron rigida - Stiff Goldenrod

Upland Moist
Dry-to-Mesic Prairie Forb
This goldenrod forms a rosette of gray-green leaves up to 1’ long and 3” wide. In late summer, its 4’ tall stalk is topped by a 4”-6”, flat-topped cluster of small, yellow flower heads. It provides aesthetically pleasing color in the garden and is well-received as a cut flower.

Onoclea-sensibilis

Onoclea sensibilis - Sensitive Fern

Saturated
Woodland Fern
Sensitive to frost, this fern needs wet, shady ares and does well in disturbed wooded wetlands. Yellow-green sterile fronds grow to 3' tall from the rhizome, while straight fertile fronds are small and filled with a series of dark "beads" which contain the spores.

Opuntia-humifusa

Opuntia humifusa - Eastern Prickly Pear

Upland Dry
Prairie Cactus
Deer resistant cactus is low to the ground, reaching 6" tall. It produces large, showy 3" to 4" wide yellow blossoms from June to July. These blooms often last only a day, but a large colony should produce color for several weeks. It prefers dry, sandy soils and full to partial sun.

Parthenium-integrifolium---Wild-Quinine

Parthenium integrifolium - Wild Quinine

Upland Dry
Dry-to-Mesic Prairie Forb
With unusual flower heads crowded in domed clusters and attractive basal leaves, this plant provides ample garden enjoyment throughout the summer season. Preferring well-drained to moist soil, this plant grows to 3’ tall and provides excellent fragrant dried flowers.

Peltandra-virginica

Peltandra virginica - Arrow Arum

Emergent Deep
Arrow Arum Swamp Forb
This perennial plant with arrow-shaped leaves is found in wetlands and flowers in the summer. The seeds develop in a spike-shaped pod and are released early in the fall as the pod decays. The leaves can grow up to 3’ in length, and plants as tall as 7’ have been found.

Physostegia-virginiana---Obedient-Plant

Physostegia virginiana - Obedient Plant

Saturated
Wet Prairie Forb
A beautiful plant with 1” long, pinkish-to-lavender, tubular flowers in a spike on top of the plant, it is called “obedient” because its flowers remain for a while in whatever position they are moved. Preferring moist-to-medium soils and full sun, this 2’-5’ tall plant blooms in late summer to early fall.

Pycnanthemum-virginianum---Common-Mountain-Mint

Pycnanthemum virginianum - Common Mountain Mint

Saturated
Mesic-to-Wet Prairie Forb
This member of the mint family prefers medium-to-wet soils and full-to-partial sun. It grows 1’-3’ high and blooms in early-to-late summer. It produces many round flower heads, each with numerous small, white flowers. It is a favorite among native bees and wasps.

Ratibida-pinnata---Yellow-Coneflower

Ratibida pinnata - Yellow Coneflower

Upland Moist
Mesic Prairie Forb
With its long, yellow, drooping ray flowers, this pretty plant creates an impressive display when in full bloom. The disk of each flower head is greenish-grey to brown and gives off an anise-like odor when crushed. Reaching heights of up to 6’, it prefers full sun and dry-to-moist soils.

Rosa-palustris---Swamp-Rose

Rosa palustris - Swamp Rose

Emergent Shallow
Emergent Marsh / Swamp Shrub
This fragrant wetland beauty is a many-branched shrub. In bloom from June to July, it grows to heights of up to 6’ and occurs in swamps, marshes, and along stream banks. It is a hardy rose and a favorite ornamental for low, moist, acidic habitats. It is insect pollinated, and the fleshy fruits enclose and protect the developing seeds. Birds eat the fruits and scatter the seed.

Rudbeckia-hirta---Black-eyed-Susan

Rudbeckia hirta - Black-Eyed Susan

Upland Dry
Dry-to-Mesic Prairie Forb
A garden favorite, this plant produces yellow flower heads up to 3” wide with a dark purplish-brown disk in the center. Growing 1’-3’ high, each stem is covered with fine hairs. It prefers dry-to-moist soils and full-to-partial sun.

Rudbeckia-triloba---Brown-eyed-Susan

Rudbeckia triloba - Brown-Eyed Susan

Upland Moist
Mesic Prairie Forb
Similar to its cousins, this late summer to mid-autumn blooming beauty is ideal for attracting songbirds and butterflies. Its branching stems are covered with 1” yellow flower heads with dark disks and set off by deep-green foliage. It thrives in well-drained soil and full sun to partial shade, and grows to 4’-5’ tall.

Sagittaria-latifolia---Common-Arrowhead

Sagittaria latifolia - Common Arrowhead

Emergent Deep
Emergent Marsh / Swamp Forb
An emergent wetland plant with long, arrow-shaped leaves, this species produces small, eye-catching white flowers about 1” in diameter. The flowers grow in whorls of three, with multiple whorls on a single, stout stalk. Growing in water up to 1.5’ deep, this plant blooms from early to late summer. It prefers full to partial sun and grows to a height of 4’.

Salix-humilis

Salix humilis - Prairie Willow

Upland Dry
Prairie Shrub
Upright shrub colonizes in open prairies and light woods with dry, sandy soils. Normally growing 4', it can reach 10' in ideal conditions. Its attractive catkins form in April and May before the leaves appear. This plant is a good food source for animals and insects, especially native bees.

Saururus-cernuus

Saururus cernuus - Lizard's Tail

Saturated
Wetland Forb
This wetland species grows 2' to 4' tall with attractive dark green heart shaped leaves. Fragrant white flowers bloom on a 4" to 6" nodding spike. Thrives in full to partial shade and wet, saturated soils.

Schizachyrium-scoparium---Little-Bluestem

Schizachyrium scoparium - Little bluestem

Upland Dry
Prairie Grass
A classic species of the prairie, this grass grows 2' to 4' in height and blooms from late summer to early fall. Mulitple 3" long racemes are found on flowerstalks that develop silvery white hairs that add unique interest to the landscape in the fall. A clump-forming grass, its foliage is bluish-green in the summer and turns a brilliant shade of reddish-bronze in the winter. Great for supporting surrounding wildflowers, this species prefers dry soils and full to partial sunlight.

Schoenoplectus-acutus---Hard-stemmed-Bulrush

Schoenoplectus acutus - Hard-Stemmed Bulrush

Emergent Deep
Emergent Marsh / Lake Sedge
A tall, sturdy plant, this species grows in waters up to 2’-3’ deep. Preferring full sun, it blooms between mid-spring and mid-summer. It can reach heights of 6’ and is an important food source for waterfowl and aquatic mammals.

Schoenoplectus-americanus---Chairmakers-Rush

Schoenoplectus americanus - Chairmaker’s Rush

Saturated
Emergent Marsh / Lake Edge Sedge
This plant might first be encountered as a stand of dark-green triangular stems growing in the mud of a lake shore. Considered a bulrush, its stems are sharply triangular and 3’ tall with leaf blades growing up to 8” long. A cluster of one to five brown spikelets form near the tip of the stem.

Schoenoplectus-tabernaemontani---Soft-Stem-Bulrush

Schoenoplectus tabernaemontani - Softstem Bulrush

Saturated to Emergent
Wetland Rush
This sturdy wetland species can be found growing in shallow wetlands, ponds, and streams in water 2' to 3' deep. It is an unbranching plant that can grow up to 7' tall. Late spring to mid summer, its round foliage will end in a umbel of spikelets that is 6" long and wide. The individual spikelets are 1/4" in length and reddish-brown in color. This bulrush is an important food source for various waterfowl and aquatic mammals. It prefers full sunlight in saturated soils.

Senna-Hebecarpa_Wild-Senna

Senna hebecarpa - Wild Senna

Saturated
Mesic-to-Wet Prairie / Floodplain Forb
This interesting member of the pea family has clusters of yellow flowers in July and August. Found in moist-to-wet conditions, Wild Senna can handle seasonal flooding. It will also do well in medium soils, growing up to 6’ tall. Seed pods make for winter interest and a food source for wildlife. Senna hebecarpa Wild Senna

Silene-regia---Royal-Catchfly

Silene regia - Royal Catchfly

Upland Moist
Dry-to-Mesic Prairie Forb
This elegant prairie plant has showy, red, star-shaped flowers on tall branching stems with mostly basal leaves. This breathtaking beauty prefers well-drained soil in full sun or partial shade and grows to 3’-4’ tall. It is sure to attract hummingbirds to any garden between July and August.

Silphium-laciniatum

Silphium laciniatum - Compass Plant

Upland Dry
Dry-to-Mesic Prairie Forb
One of the most characteristic and noticeable plants of the tallgrass prairie, this plant has large, yellow, sunflower-like flower heads and huge, deeply lobed leaves. Located mostly at the base of the plant, the leaves tend to orient north to south. This 7’-8’ tall June-to-September blooming plant prefers full sun, is deeply rooted, and very drought tolerant. It is an excellent food source for songbirds and butterflies.

Silphium-perfoliatum---Cup-Plant

Silphium perfoliatum - Cup Plant

Upland Moist/Saturated
Mesic-to-Wet Prairie Forb
This plant’s huge perfoliate leaves actually form a “cup” (where the stem and opposite leaves meet) from which goldfinches and other songbirds drink. Several large, 4”-5” yellow, daisy-like flower heads bloom atop the stem, taking the plant to heights of up to 8’ in full-sun conditions. Cup Plant thrives in average soil.

Silphium-terebinthinaceum_Prairie-Dock

Silphium terebinthinaceum - Prairie Dock

Upland Moist
Dry-to-Mesic Prairie Forb
The large leaves of this deep-rooted plant are cool to the touch. In August the stalks set clusters of yellow sunflower heads. Growing in moist-to-dry soils, it attracts butterflies, birds, and other wildlife. With leaves 2’ tall and stems that reach 8’ to 10’, this unique plant is a prairie favorite.

Solidago-speciosa

Solidago speciosa - Showy Goldenrod

Upland Dry
Dry Prairie / Savanna Forb
This species has a branching flower cluster with numerous, relatively large yellow flower heads. It blooms mid-summer to early fall, preferring full-to-partial sun and dry soils. Contrary to popular belief, goldenrod species do not induce seasonal allergies; it is the wind-borne pollen from ragweed that causes them.

Sorghastrum_nutans_-_Indian_Grass

Sorghastrum nutans - Indian grass

Upland Dry
Prairie Grass
A striking species grows to 9' tall. Late summer to early fall, it produces a narrow, 14" panicle of spikelets with yellow anthers. The inflorescence will ripen into a striking plume of golden seed heads that attract birds and provide visual interest into the winter. It prefers full sun and dry to moist soils.

Sparganium-eurycarpum-Common_Bur_Weed

Sparganium eurycarpum - Common Bur Reed

Emergent Shallow
Emergent Marsh Forb
An aquatic, emergent forb that grows in water up to 2’ deep, this species looks like cattail to the untrained eye before blooming. Once in bloom, however, the dazzling ball-shaped flower heads on a zig-zagging stalk make it clear that this plant is a wetland wildflower. It grows up to 6’ high and prefers full sun.

Spirea-alba---Meadowsweet

Spiraea alba - Meadowsweet

Saturated
Wet Prairie Shrub
Meadowsweet is a small shrub found in damp meadows, ditches and bogs, at the edges of ponds, on river banks, and in damp open woodlands. The creeping rootstock sends up a reddish, angular stem, up to 2’-6’ tall. The small, white, five-petaled flowers grow in clusters from June to August.

Symphyotrichum-laeve---Smooth-Blue-Aster

Symphyotrichum laeve - Smooth Blue Aster

Upland Moist
Dry-to-Mesic Prairie / Savanna Forb
A beautiful late summer to mid-fall bloomer, this smooth-stemmed aster produces blue-to-violet flower heads that can be up to 1” in diameter. A perfect plant for dry fields and open woods, it can grow up to 4’ tall.

Sporobolus-heterolepis---Prairie-Dropseed

Sporobolus heterolepis - Prairie Dropseed

Upland Moist
Mesic Prairie Grass
A regal-looking grass of the prairie, this species grows 2’-4’ in height. It prefers dry-to-mesic soils in sunny areas. Blooming in late summer, this clump-forming plant turns various shades of gold, bronze, and red in the late fall.

Tradescantia-ohiensis---Common-Spiderwort

Tradescantia ohiensis - Common Spiderwort

Upland Moist
Dry-to-Mesic Prairie / Savanna Forb
A spectacular plant of prairies and savannas, this 2’-4’ tall plant prefers medium-to-dry soil moisture and full-to-partial sun. Blooming in late spring to early fall, the delicate bluish-purple 1.5” wide flowers emerge in the early morning and often “melt” away in the hot afternoon sun.

Verbesina_altemifolia

Verbesina alternifolia - Common Wingstem

Saturated Wetland
Wetland Forb
Growing 3' to 7' tall, the strongly winged central stem has rough textured, narrowly ovate or lance-shaped alternate leaves up to 10" long. Its yellow, drooping composite flowerheads are about 1" to 2" across and bloom from July to October. Wingstem does best in medium to wet soils in full to partial shade. This species is a prolific source of nectar and pollen for native pollinators.

Verbena-hastata---Blue-Vervain

Verbena hastata - Blue Vervain

Saturated
Wet Prairie Forb
A wetland wildflower with branching flower spikes, this 3’-6’ tall plant prefers moist-to-wet soils and full sun. With its tiny purple flowers, it blooms from early-to-late summer. It provides a nectar source for a variety of tiny native bee species.

Vernonia-fasciculata

Vernonia fasciculata - Common Ironweed

Saturated
Wet Prairie Forb
Reaching heights of 3’-7’, this wetland forb with deep purple heads of disk flowers is easy to recognize when it blooms from August to September. The rich color attracts butterflies and pollinators to its many blossoms.

Veronicastrum-virginicum---Culver_s-Root

Veronicastrum virginicum - Culver’s Root

Upland Moist
Mesic Prairie Forb
A gorgeous wildflower of medium moisture soils, this 3’-6’ tall plant can live in conditions from full sun to partial shade. Blooming from early-to-late summer, small, white, tubular flowers cover multiple floral spikes. Its leaves, in whorls of 3 to 7, add to this species’ charm. It is much sought after by native bees.

Zizia-aurea---Golden-Alexanders

Zizia aurea - Golden Alexanders

Upland Moist
Mesic Prairie Forb

A wonderful early season bloomer, this member of the parsley family grows to 3’ tall. It prefers medium soil moisture and can be found in full sun-to-shade conditions. With its attractive foliage and yellow flower head in a flattish umbel, this plant blooms in mid-spring to early summer. It is a food source for several butterfly species.